Tracking adaptation in agricultural sectors: Climate change adaptation indicators
Tracking adaptation progress at country level is increasingly recognized as an important element of climate change adaptation. The Paris Agreement, adopted in 2015, stresses the need to monitor and learn from adaptation actions, and recommends periodical stocktaking of the overall progress towards climate change adaptation. Tracking progress towards climate change adaptation is a relatively recent yet rapidly expanding field. Several initiatives, guidelines and frameworks have been launched at the national and global level. However, the literature on adaptation tracking frameworks identifies certain challenges and limitations with respect to their application in agricultural sectors (crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture). Though some of the tools are technically sound, their practical use is constrained by the absence of adequate baseline information. In addition, several frameworks and methods are project-specific, and can therefore contribute only partially to policymaking at the national level. This paper outlines a framework and methodology for Tracking Adaptation in Agricultural Sectors (TAAS) at the national level. The framework recognizes the complex nature of adaptation processes across agricultural subsectors. It provides a clear understanding of the interrelationships between natural resources and ecosystems, agricultural production systems, socio-economics and institutional and policy systems that drive adaptation processes and outcomes. The TAAS framework and methodology examines processes and outcomes of adaptation at national and local levels, providing a consistent and flexiblelist of indicators. It builds on existing indicators of sustainable development, climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, to avoid any duplication of tracking efforts at the national level. Four major categories of indicators are identified: natural resources and ecosystems, agricultural production systems, socio-economics, and institutions and policies.