Demystifying the Modalities, Procedure and Guidelines (MPGs): Your Simple Guide
Jaypalsinh Chauhan
18 Oct 2023

Article 13 is the backbone of the Paris Agreement's transparency framework. It lays the groundwork for a systematic, uniform, and credible system for tracking progress, sharing information, and holding countries accountable for their climate action efforts. The Modalities, Procedures, and Guidelines (MPGs) outlined within this article create a comprehensive system that fosters trust, encourages cooperation, and paves the way for effective climate mitigation and adaptation. They provide a clear understanding of climate change action and aim to respect national sovereignty while avoiding placing undue burden on Parties.


The guiding principles of these modalities, procedures and guidelines (MPGs) are:

  • Building on and enhancing the transparency arrangements under the Convention, recognizing the special circumstances of the least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing states (SIDS), and implementing the transparency framework in a facilitative, non-intrusive, non-punitive manner, respecting national sovereignty and avoiding placing undue burden on Parties.
  • The importance of facilitating improved reporting and transparency over time;
  • Providing flexibility to those developing country Parties that need it in the light of their capacities;
  • Promoting transparency, accuracy, completeness, consistency and comparability
  • Avoiding duplication of work and undue burden on Parties and the secretariat;
  • Ensuring that Parties maintain at least the frequency and quality of reporting in accordance with their respective obligations under the Convention;
  • Ensuring that double counting is avoided; 
  • Ensuring environmental integrity.


Summary of Paragraphs                                                        

01 - 16           Introduction                                                 

17 - 58           National GHG Inventory Report                                                           

59 - 103         Track progress made in implementing and achieving Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)                                                           

104 - 117      Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation                                                    

118 - 129      Financial, Technology development and transfer and Capacity-building Support provided and mobilized                                        

130 - 145      Financial, Technology development and transfer and Capacity-building Support needed and received                                                         

146 - 188      Technical Expert Review (TER)                                                            

189 - 199      Facilitative, Multilateral Consideration of Progress (FMCP)


We have organized all paragraphs of the MPGs into a tabular format. In this format, you can easily find the simplified meaning of each paragraph, its relation to the BTR chapter, whether it is a shall or should requirement, and the level of flexibility available for developing country Parties. Please refer to the snapshot below. 


Interested countries are welcome to contact us at any time for more information. We can provide a detailed explanation and conduct a demonstration for you and your team to ensure better understanding.